What Is the Treaty of Tordesillas and Why Do They Come up with Such Agreement

The main regulation of the treaty was to establish the border between the Spanish and Portuguese territories 270 miles further west of that established by the Inter caetera Bull of 1493. The Western shift of the demarcation line allowed the Spanish to exercise their dominance over more of what they thought was Asia. For the Portuguese, the settlement of the line 370 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands allowed the route to India to control the Cape of Good Hope. Although there is no formal evidence, a number of clues indicate the possibility that the Portuguese knew about the existence of land in the South Atlantic as early as 1493. The new agreement allowed them to guarantee sovereignty over what would become Brazil, which was officially discovered in 1500. The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed on 7 June 1494. Essentially, the decision of the bull was retained by Pope Alexander, but the demarcation line was moved a little to the west. To be precise, the line moved 370 miles west of Cape Verde, about 46 degrees 30` west. This meant that the line ran in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, roughly equidistant between the Cape Verde Islands and the West Indies, but it was an approximate and completely imaginary line, since cartographers of the time had no way of measuring longitude.

This meant that when the sailors were actually at sea, in practice, they could not say for sure whether they had crossed the line. Another complication was that the contract did not explicitly specify where the line ended. Did he travel around the world to the soon-to-be-discovered Pacific Ocean? The line also did not take into account practical geographical issues such as coasts, lakes or mountains, and certainly the local population and their own tribal or political boundaries were not taken into account at all. Treaties are agreements between and between nations. Treaties have been used to end wars, settle land disputes, and even establish new countries. The Treaty of Tordesillas was ratified in 1494 by the Crown of Castile and the King of Portugal. The treaty divided the newly discovered territories outside Europe into two equal halves, the eastern side belonging to Portugal and the west to Castile (later part of Spain). The Mariana Islands were on the Spanish side, giving Spain the right to colonize the Mariana Islands 174 years later, in 1668. Despite considerable ignorance of the geography of the so-called New World, Portugal and Spain largely complied with the treaty.

However, the other European powers did not sign the treaty and generally ignored it, especially those that became Protestant after the Reformation. Similarly, Indigenous nations have not recognized the treaty and, as the legal basis for the doctrine of discovery,[9] it has been a source of persistent tensions over land ownership until modern times, cited only in 2005 in the U.S. Supreme Court`s Case of Sherrill v. Oneida Nation. Very little of the newly divided area had actually been seen by Europeans, as it was divided only by the treaty. Castile gained land, including most of the Americas, which in 1494 had little proven wealth. The easternmost part of present-day Brazil was attributed to Portugal when Pedro Álvares Cabral landed there in 1500 on his way to India. Some historians claim that even before this time, the Portuguese knew about the South American bulge that makes up most of Brazil, so its landing in Brazil was not a coincidence. [15] One researcher points out that Cabral landed on the Brazilian coast 12 degrees further south than the expected Cape São Roque, so “the probability that such a landing as a result of a weather cape or navigational errors was low; and it is very likely that Cabral was commissioned to study a coast whose existence was not only suspected, but already known. [16] Although the agreements reached on July 7 were adopted. June, because the lawyers had full powers, both sides decided to take a reasonable period of time to be ratified by the respective monarchs: 50 days for the African Treaty and 100 days for the Ocean Treaty, because it was necessary to wait to find out which Castilian ships were crossing the Atlantic, until June. 20th place.

The Catholic Monarchs ratified the treaty in Arévalo and Juan II in Setúbal. John II of Portugal then asked the Catholic Monarchs to negotiate directly the border of their Atlantic domains. The discussions culminated in the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas on 7 June 1494. The purpose of the agreement was to resolve the “controversy over which part belongs to each of the two parts of the space that remains to be discovered.” To this end, it was decided to draw a “pole-to-pole” line of 370 leagues from the Cape Verde Islands. The eastern part would be part of the Portuguese domain and the western part of the Spanish domain. Anyone who would undertake not to send ships to sail on the territory of the partner, although an exception allows Spanish ships to cross the Portuguese domain in a “straight line” to the west. The signatories also pledged not to turn to the pope`s authority for support against the treaty`s obligations, but only to seek its recognition, scheduled for 1506. It was really a diplomatic agreement on territorial division, which in fact did not raise any questions of evangelization. any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. Regions are the basic units of geography.

The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas [tɾɐˈtaðu ðɨ tuɾðeˈziʎɐʃ];[ Note 1] Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo ðe toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed at Tordesillas, Spain on June 7, 1494 and certified at Setúbal, Portugal, divided newly discovered countries outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire (Crown of Castile), along a meridian 370 miles [Note 2] west of the Cape Verde Islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the islands of Cape Verde (already Portuguese) and the islands that Christopher Columbus had entered on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), called in the Treaty Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola). The treaty effectively thwarted the bulls of Alexander VI, but was later sanctioned by Pope Julius II by the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis of January 24, 1506. [13] Although the treaty was negotiated without consulting the pope, some sources call the resulting line the “papal demarcation line.” [14] The Treaty of Tordesillas was invoked by Chile in the 20th century to defend the principle of an Antarctic sector extending along a meridian to the South Pole, as well as the claim that the treaty made the Spaniards (or Portuguese) all unknown lands south of the pole. [48] Portugal would have control of the eastern part and Castile of the western part. The treaty contained rights to territories that had already been discovered or were to be discovered, but limited to those that had not yet had a Christian government. Papal bulls threatened with excommunication those who refused to submit to their mandate. The papal bulls were not in favor of the Portuguese, who feared losing not only their ability to influence unknown lands, but also a shortcut to the spice islands. Portugal and Castile hoped to take control before the other.

After the Guarani War, the Treaty of Spain and Portugal was annulled in the Treaty of El Pardo (1761). The border was finally established in the first Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777, with Spain acquiring territories east of the Uruguay River and Portugal acquiring territories in the Amazon basin. Although the island of Santo Thome was not identified by the Treaty, its “Islas de las Velas” (Islands of sails) appear in a Spanish history of China from 1585, on Petrus Plancius` world map from 1594, on an anonymous map of the Moluccas in the London edition of Linschoten of 1598 and on Petro Kærio`s world map of 1607. identified as a north-south chain of islands in the Pacific Northwest, also known as the “Islas de los Ladrones” (Thieves` Islands) during this period. [38] [39] [40] Its name was changed from Spain in 1667 to “Islas de las Marianas” (Mariana Islands), which also includes Guam at its southern end. Guam`s longitude of 144°45′E is east of the Moluccan longitude of 127°24′E to 17°21′, which is remarkably close to the 17° east of the Treaty by 16th century standards. This longitude crosses the eastern end of the main island of Hokkaidō, in northern Japan, and the eastern end of New Guinea, where Frédéric Durand placed the demarcation line. [41] Moriarty and Keistman set the demarcation line at 147°E by measuring 16.4° east of the western tip of New Guinea (or 17° east of 130°E). [42] Despite the treaty`s clear statement that the demarcation line extends 17° east of the Moluccas, some sources place the line east of the Moluccas.

[43] [44] [45] (1494) Agreement between Spain and Portugal on the sharing of the colonization rights of all countries outside Europe. Both spheres of influence had become truly global, but so had colonial competition. The Far East contained powerful states that were themselves interested in colonizing or controlling trade, states such as China, Japan, the Marathas in India, and the sultans of Malaysia. Even more dangerous were the European compatriots. The Netherlands, Britain and France had possessed powerful fleets in the last years of the 16th century, and they attacked and disrupted the carefully balanced Portuguese-Spanish status quo around the world during the 17th century and beyond. The Treaty of Tordesillas had become a worthless piece of parchment, and now it was ships, cannons, fortresses, and local armies that supported an empire, not diplomatic agreements and lines on maps. .